Typhoid, or “Typhoid Fever” is an infectious disease usually causing fever and several other symptoms (see below). Typhoid is caused by Salmonella enterica Typhi and Paratyhpi. This disease is often confused with non-typhoidal Salmonella, a major cause of diarrhea worldwide and in the US.
Typhoid fever occurs when someone eats contaminated food or water. It can also be transmitted from person to person.
Prior to visiting a country where the disease is known to occur, visit Dr. Julian Klapowitz at Travel Medicine Consultations for the typhoid vaccine NYC travelers need to ensure optimal health and safety.
What are the symptoms of Typhoid?
The symptoms of typhoid begin to show between six to thirty days after exposure.
Symptoms and signs of typhoid include:
- Dry cough
- Loss of appetite
- Weight loss
- Abdominal pain (diarrhea is less common)
- Swollen abdomen
Fever associated with typhoid often very high. It gradually increases over several days and can rise up to 104 degrees Fahrenheit. The rash usually appears as rose-colored spots, mostly on the neck and abdomen. Not all patients develop a rash.
After being infected, a small number of people can become chronic carriers (carrying the bacteria more than 12 months in their stool or urine). These carriers are still contagious, despite having no symptoms “Typhoid Mary,” a New York cook, likely infected more than 50 people!
Places where Typhoid is common:
The risk of typhoid is greater in areas that lack access to clean water and adequate sanitation. People who are not vaccinated, people whose immunity is low, and children are at the highest risk of being infected by the typhoid bacteria.
Typhoid is a public health problem in developing areas of Africa, South-East Asia, Western Pacific regions, and the Americas.
Typhoid Vaccines and Prevention:
As with other diseases that are acquired through contaminated food or water, following food and water precautions and performing thorough hand-washing before eating are two effective prevention measures. Since it can be transmitted from person-to-person, avoiding direct contact with infected people is important as well.
There are two typhoid vaccines that are available in the US:
- Typhim Vi, an injectable polysaccharide vaccine and
- Vivotif, a “live: typhoid vaccine given as a pill every other day for 4 doses.
The injectable vaccine lasts approximately two years, the oral vaccine for five.
For a typhoid vaccine in New York City, oral or injectable, contact Travel Medicine Consultations, where you can schedule an appointment with Dr. Julian Klapowitz to discuss your vaccine needs for travel health.
For further information, please visit CDC/Typhoid Fever.